In order for food aid programming to provide the greatest impact, it must effectively target the neediest groups with appropriate rations and food-related interventions. TANGO works on all aspects of food aid programming, from targeting criteria and selection processes to design of food for assets programs. TANGO has worked with NGOs and the UN to identify locally-appropriate targeting indicators in an array of contexts, including those with a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. In addition to appropriate targeting mechanisms, programs must also identify exit criteria and strategies on either an individual basis or regional basis. Drawing upon an understanding of the historical contexts and trends, TANGO has also designed such exit strategies for food aid programming.
Household Livelihood Security
Household Livelihood Security (HLS) has become a basic framework for program analysis, design, monitoring and evaluation. HLS grows out of a food security perspective, but is based on the observation that food is only one important basic need among several and adequate food consumption may be sacrificed for other important needs. Given that the causes of poverty are complex, HLS provides a framework to analyze and understand the web of poverty and people’s mechanisms for dealing with it.
Household Livelihood Security is defined as adequate and sustainable access to income and resources to meet basic needs (including adequate access to food, potable water, health facilities, educational opportunities, housing, and time for community participation and social integration). Livelihoods can be made up of a range of on-farm and off-farm activities that together provide a variety of procurement strategies for food and cash. Thus, each household can have several possible sources of entitlement which constitute its livelihood. Entitlements include the rights, privileges and assets that a household has, and its position in the legal, political, and social fabric of society.
The risk of livelihood failure determines the level of vulnerability of a household to income, food, health and nutritional insecurity. The greater the share of resources devoted to food and health service acquisition, the higher the vulnerability of the household to food and nutritional insecurity. Therefore, livelihoods are secure when households have secure ownership of, or access to, resources (both tangible and intangible) and income earning activities, including reserves and assets, to off-set risks, ease shocks, and meet contingencies. Households have secure livelihoods when they are able to acquire, protect, develop, utilize, exchange, and benefit from assets and resources.
Household Livelihood Security Assessments: A Toolkit for Practitioners
The HLS Toolkit is a handbook designed by TANGO that outlines the background and methodology of Household Livelihood Security Assessments and how they can be used in various development approaches and intervention designs. The Toolkit provides step-by-step guidelines on how to conduct a households livelihood security assessment including data collection and analyis.
Final Evaluation of the CARE Bangladesh SHOUHARDO project
Sep 2009 - Dec 2009
The SHOUHARDO Title II project, operating in the most remote and marginalized regions of Bangladesh from 2006-2010, took an innovative approach to reducing child malnutrition. First, it targeted only the poorest households within its operational area. Second, it targeted its direct nutrition interventions, including food aid, to children under two years and their mothers. Third, it used a rights-based, livelihoods approach to address all major causes of malnutrition specific to the households, including unequal power relations between economic classes and between women and men. Over three-and-a-half years, the stunting prevalence in the project’s area fell by 16.3 percentage points, which is extraordinarily large compared to trends in Bangladesh and the experience of previous projects.
TANGO assisted CARE to determine its success in meeting output and program outcome targets. The final evaluation used both quantitative and qualitative methods to identify impacts of SHOUHARDO project activities on the food and livelihood security of poor and extreme poor households. Additionally the final evaluation identified key achievements and challenges for each of SHOUHARDO’s core program areas.
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Development of Food and Livelihood Security tools for a Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response Toolkit
Regional (Latin America and Caribbean)
Oct 2008 - Oct 2009
Under the AI.COMM project, TANGO collaborated with the Academy for Educational Development (AED), Management Sciences for Health STOP-AI project, Links Media, the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO), and the CDC/ NMRC to create tools and guidelines for pandemic influenza preparation, response, and recovery.
The toolkit’s main objective is to strengthen the capacity of municipal response to a pandemic influenza by mapping out key issues, providing guidance on necessary municipal priority actions, determining populations most at risk, and building community and household resilience through awareness raising activities. TANGO’s contributions include a range of tools that address food and livelihood security and community volunteer organization during a pandemic influenza, as well as community recovery following a pandemic influenza.
Sudan Food Assistance Transition Study
Sep 2007 - Nov 2007
In September 2007, TANGO in collaboration with USAID's FANTA Project undertook a Food Assistance Study in Southern Sudan. This report provides an analysis of the key issues related to food insecurity in Southern Sudan and the Three Areas (Abyei, the Nuba Mountains and Blue Nile). The study proposes possible steps for addressing food security through development of an integrated food security strategy and by leveraging Title II and Disaster Assistance funds in a complementary manner that emphasizes the transitions taking place in livelihoods, education, health, nutrition, institutions and security.
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Sustainable Livelihoods project design for OXFAM Tajikistan
Jan 2007 - Feb 2007
Tajikistan remains plagued by poverty, especially in rural agricultural areas. Women and youth are particularly vulnerable in this context and are unable to escape the poverty trap. TANGO worked with OXFAM’s livelihoods program to identify problems, potential solutions, partnerships, and appropriate responses to address the complex issues of food and livelihood security. TANGO then developed a five-year strategic framework and a proposal for a sustainable livelihoods program at national and regional levels.
Socio-economic Profiles of WFP Operational Areas and Beneficiaries
Sep 2006 - Oct 2006
In 2006 TANGO conducted an in depth survey for the World Food Programme (WFP) in rural Bangladesh. The study objective was to create socio-economic profiles and determine levels of vulnerability and food security in WFP operational areas. The disaggregation by socio-economic status enabled a more nuanced and descriptive analysis of food security and vulnerability issues, allowing WFP to design their programmes accordingly.
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Debt and Migration in Northwest Bangladesh & the dynamics of Debt in Southeast Bangladesh
Feb 2006 - Jun 2006
TANGO International helped CARE’s Livelihood Monitoring Project to conduct two comprehensive studies on indebtedness of vulnerable households living in Northwest and Southeastern part of Bangladesh. The quantitative and qualitative studies were based on feedback gained from focus group discussions and household interviews. Both of the studies built on earlier findings of CARE/Bangladesh’s Livelihoods Monitoring Project baseline studies. These baselines were designed to assess livelihood profiles of the households and identify the critical indicators that would allow the systematic and quantitative monitoring of livelihood impacts in the country. In an effort to add quantitative and qualitative depth to these findings and inform future interventions, these two follow-up studies systematically documented the dynamics of indebtedness and its potential relationship to migration within selected communities and households in both of the Northwest and Southeast regions of the country. The reports focus on the number of key issues to developing a comprehensive perspective on debt within Bangladesh and the various impacts it has on the livelihood security of poor households in the Northwest and Southeast regions of the country.
Finalization of Monitoring and Evaluation Framework of the National Food Security Program
Mar 2005 - Apr 2005
Department for International Development (DfID)
TANGO provided technical assistance to the Department for International Development in finalizing the Monitoring and Evaluation framework for the Government of Ethiopia’s National Food Security Program. The framework includes detailed guidelines of both indicators and methodologies required to assess the overall performance and impact of key components of the Food Security Programme. TANGO finalized the framework and provided training in implementation and maintenance.
Assessment of Chronic Food Insecurity and Nutrition Issues
Feb 2005 - Apr 2005
World Food Programme (WFP)
TANGO performed a vulnerability assessment for the World Food Programme in Sudan in order to lay foundation for future development activities. The assessment provided information on food insecurity and nutritional status of vulnerable rural populations and proposed appropriate food aid and non-food aid intervention strategies for the future. The assessment was performed by reviewing existing information as well as collecting primary nutritional data and qualitative and quantitative household data.
Household Livelihood Security Assessment for CARE West Bank/ Gaza Emergency Program
Sep 2004 - Oct 2004
TANGO worked with CARE and partner organizations to undertake an assessment of the conditions, systems, risks and opportunities related to the livelihood security and rights realization of the poorest and most vulnerable households and groups in the Occupied Palestinian Territories. As part of this assignment, TANGO provided training to CARE and partner agency staff in the understanding and application of Household Livelihood Security and rights-based concepts, as well as participatory assessment methodologies.
Understanding the Causes of the Southern African Crisis: Policy Position Papers
Mar 2004 - Mar 2004
In January 2003, CARE International launched an analytical process to understand better the nature of longer term livelihood trends in Southern Africa, and thus the causes of the food crisis that was then sweeping the region. The specific objectives of the analysis were to identify the underlying causes of livelihood vulnerability within regional and country contexts and understand long term livelihood trends and coping strategies among vulnerable populations. TANGO was contracted to conduct research and develop policy papers addressing the key thematic areas of Gender Exploitation, Governance and Rural Institutional Development, and Safety Nets within Malawi. The Policy Position Papers will contribute to the development of livelihood recovery strategies in the Southern African region as well as inform and influence key government and donor agendas that integrate long and short term responses to the food crisis.
Food Security and Vulnerability Assessment
Feb 2004 - Jul 2004
World Food Programme (WFP)
TANGO worked with the Government of Egypt and the World Food Programme/ Egypt to implement a food security and vulnerability assessment, at the governorate and national levels. This information informs food security and safety net policies in Egypt. TANGO provided assistance in the initial and detailed planning of this activity. A team of TANGO consultants with expertise in qualitative and quantitative food security assessments, advocacy, and policy coordinated closely on every aspect of the assessment design, training, data collection, and analysis. In addition, TANGO developed a strategy to disseminate and apply the findings of the surveys. A key aspect of this work was the facilitation of meetings with Government counterparts to discuss the socio-economic implications and develop recommendations based on the results. Throughout this process, TANGO worked closely with relevant stakeholders to build consensus around a guiding plan of action.
Support to a Coherent Livelihoods and Social Inclusion Monitoring System
Oct 2003 - Nov 2004
Department for International Development (DfID)
TANGO was contracted to DFID Nepal to develop systems to better monitor and evaluate the impact of DfID’s programme on improved livelihood security and, at the same time, ensure its programme is contributing to Nepal’s Poverty Reduction Strategy (NPRS) and its pursuit of obtaining the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). DfID Nepal required an effective monitoring and evaluation system able to capture the impact that its forty projects were having on rural livelihoods and relate this to the NPRS and MDGs. To achieve this, TANGO also aligned DfID’s CAP indicators with both its projects’ indicators as well as the NPRS and MDG indicators.
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· Technical Areas : Food and Livelihood Security